It is common knowledge that there are three known “spatial” dimensions—length (x), width (y), and depth (z)—and one “time” dimension. The four dimensions of “spacetime” is, therefore, 3+1.

However, this is not all. There is something called *“extra-dimensional space”* in the universe, pervaded by fascinating *extra-dimensional forces*…

…beyond the *four fundamental forces of nature*—gravitational, electromagnetic, strong nuclear, weak nuclear—and “strings” that exist as ultra-tiny vibrating loops!

It is believed that discovering and discerning these strings will reveal proof of *10 ^{500}*

*separate universes*—

*!!*—with different constants of nature and even different laws of physics.

String Theory (ST) originated through the notion that our conscious existence is stuck in a “3+1-dimensional subspace” of a larger universe. Even then, “time” is a dimension that is completely different from space.

Astonishingly, according to ST calculations, there are not four—*three axes of space (x, y, z) and one of time (t)*—but as much as 10 or 11 to *26 dimensions to the universe!*

Connoted as (9+1) and (10+1)—*“+1″ representing the dimension of time*—these are postulated by the Supersymmetric “Super” String Theory (SST) and M-Theory…

…while the closed, unoriented “Bosonic String Theory (BST)” explains *a “3×3 Octonionic Matrix” universe of 26 dimensions*—physical spacetime, internal symmetry space, and first-generation fermions/anti-particles.

Another aspect of ST is that particles—electrons, neutrons, protons, and subatomic others—aren’t really *zero-dimensional* *points*. They are actually one-dimensional strings of only length…

…and so unimaginably tiny, that they appear to be points. The width of a string is virtually non-existent—*roughly of Planck Length, i.e. 10 ^{-35}*

*meters!*

Obviously, we have not yet discovered the faculties or means—at least not scientifically—to observe the strings. However, what we *do know* is the “quark”, the fundamental constituent of all matter…

… and based on the number of quarks a subatomic particle is made of, there are *hadrons, baryons (three quarks), mesons (one quark and one anti-quark), fermions, and bosons*.

An “anti-quark” is the anti-particle of the quark, and is of equal magnitude but opposite charge. This forms the basis to understand the concept of String Theory.

That said, SST can be simply told as BST that includes 3-quark fermion vibrations—accompanied by 2-quark bosons—culminating in a “supersymmetric” spectrum, which condenses ST’s 26 dimensions into 10 or 11.

*

String Theory is one of the most famous—*yet also one of the most confusing*—ideas in modern physics, at whose heart is the idea that fundamental particles of matter are “ultra-tiny strings and not point-like dots”…

…so small that our best instruments cannot tell that they are not points. And because these 10, 11, or 26 dimensions are bunched up in tiny spaces, we cannot experience them.

Furthermore, it has been revealed through detailed study that ST also *describes other objects*, variously including *points, membranes, and higher-dimensional objects*—not just strings.

However, no firm predictions—that can be experimentally tested and empirically proven—have been made by any of the five String Theories currently known.

Hope that a viable solution for the “Theory of Everything (TOE)” will be provided by ST is what generates massive interest in its potential. Precisely, String Theory is what will unify…

…Planck’s Constant originating from *Quantum Mechanics*

…Newton’s Gravitational Constant from *Classical Gravitation*

…the Speed of Light from Einstein’s theory of *General Relativity*

…in addition to naturally describing interactions between the *four fundamental forces of nature*.

*

String Theory continues to remain unverified, but as with any new development, it would pass through a stage of uncertainty before being conclusively accepted or rejected.

Another problem is that much of ST is “perturbatively formulated”—as a series of approximations rather than as an exact solution.

Even then, a universe with the precise collection of forces and matter that we observe, being described by ST, is an uncertainty.

However, not all hope is lost. The predicted effects of ST may be detected by a neutrino experiment—”The Ice Cube Experiment”—being conducted at the South Pole…

…which will be able to detect up to 10 cosmic neutrinos per year—that might reveal the existence of extra-dimensional space predicted by ST.

Hope that “cosmic strings”—billions of light years long, thinner than a proton, and spectacularly dense—would reveal themselves in images of distant galaxies is one of the most dramatic predictions of ST…

…and the search is on!

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