In the last part we learnt everything about Ozone. This part we will see what governments of different countries have done to control ozone depletion.
Okay, why do we talk about global action on the Ozone depletion front?
Ozone depletion is a global phenomenon as ODS substances is released not just by one or two countries but all and the negative impact is equally applicable to all countries.
Which global organization initiated efforts to control Ozone depletion?
UN, United Nations has progamme called UNEP, United Nations Environment Programme and one of the main concerns from its inception in 1972 was Ozone depletion.
Were there any conferences organized by UNEP for this purpose?
Many conferences have been organized by UNEP on Ozone Depletion.
- Vienna Convention in 1985
- Montreal Protocol in September of 1987
- Helsinki Declaration in 1989
- Kyoto Conference in 1997
Later many conferences organized for Environment Protection and Global Warming included Ozone Depletion as one of the important topics.
Who participated in the early conferences and what were the resolutions?
One of the first important agreements was made in the Montreal Protocol where 24 nations agreed to control the production and use of CFC to half the level of 1986. The protocol became effective from January of 1989.
Later in the Helsinki Declaration the Montreal Protocol was amended and ratified by 83 participating countries. The ratified agreement was known as Montreal Declaration and it was further modified in June of 1990 with the objective of phasing out the CFCs by 2000.
In the Kyoto Conference in 1997 where again the Ozone Depletion issue was discussed with the issue of Global warming and the participating nations were asked to find alternatives for ODS and a multilateral fund was constituted to develop eco friendly technologies and phase out ODS.
What is the role of India in Ozone Depletion and its protection?
In India provisions of the Montreal Protocol came into effect from September of 1992. A detailed India focused strategic programme was prepared in 1993 with the main objectives of phasing out ODS without affecting the consumers and industries.
Which organization or the unit of Government is responsible in India for Ozone layer Protection and what were the steps taken?
The implementation of Ozone layer protection based on the Montreal Protocol was entrusted with the Ministry of Environment & Forests in India.
Several fiscal measures such as customs and excise duty exemption on goods needed for ODS Phase out and investment assistance for new non-ODS technologies for discouraging ODS use and encouraging ODS substitutes were taken up.
All financial institutions and banks were asked by RBI not to fund establishments with ODS Technologies. A new licensing system was also brought in to regulate import and export of ODS.
A new Notified Ozone Depleting Substances Registration and Control Rules was framed in 2000 and offers legal framework for compliance of the Montreal Protocol. The rule prohibits the use of CFCs beyond January 1st 2003.
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